[Mono-bugs] [Bug 325495] arrays don' t appear to be implementing all the generic interfaces in 2.0
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Mon Oct 1 06:00:26 EDT 2007
--- Comment #6 from Paolo Molaro <lupus at novell.com> 2007-10-01 04:00:25 MST ---
First the good news: with the lazy IMT entry change, memory usage for the IMT
thunks goes from 191 KB to less than 6 KB, so a big win (monodevelop is
similar, from 196 KB to 5.2 KB).
Now the not so good news (but not so bad either). I assume (I don't have a
windows box at hand to test) that the additional interfaces on arrays are
completely implicit (they don't appear on arraytype.GetInterfaces()): this
would explain why gmcs is able to compile the code at all, the checking is not
done using the runtime (which would have failed anyway).
That assumption (that needs to be checked) means that we don't really need to
create all the MonoClass structures representing the interfaces, with the
associated runtime memory and cpu costs, which as we saw causes the problem to
be intractable as soon as we go into a few deep array types (current gmcs/mono
can't compile some programs already). So the solution to this bug is to really
not create _any_ implicit interface. Here is how the magic would work.
We need to implement the above suggestion of reserving in the array vtables the
slots for the three interface members and each of the possibly thousands of
interfaces will map to the 3 offsets, so the vtables will be always small in
size, not dependent on the number of interfaces. Then we need to consider that
we may have the specific arrays implement only the interfaces that the user
actually requested in some way (either as a cast or as an interface method
call). This reduces the amount of created interfaces from thousands/millions in
simple programs to the few that are actually needed (and that are already
otherwise limited by disk space or memory usage): in practice the limiting
factor won't be the runtime implementation, but the user itself, which is fine.
Now the problem becomes: where do we lazily add the interfaces?
There are basically 3 places: the cast opcodes implementations (we'd do
something similar to the transparent proxies slow-path: if the cast fails we
check for an array object and we go into the runtime and setup all the needed
data structures for the cast to work the next time around). The second place is
basically mono_object_get_virtual_method(), though in this case we don't
actually need to change the data structures, just get the offset in the vtable
manually. The third place is at the interface method invocation: here things
are a little more complicated, since the method is called without an explicit
cast and we need to consider two implementations, the IMT way and the old way.
For the IMT case it's pretty simple to jump to a runtime trampoline in the case
where the interface method to execute is not found in the IMT slots thunks
(this means a small performance penalty and the requirement that all the IMT
slots for array vtables are created as colliding slots). The runtime will then
create a new IMT slot entry that includes the called method and all will be
well the second time around (there will be no need to go into the runtime).
There is a small issue here, which is of the same nature as the issue we
currently have already for the transparent proxies vtables and for the
interface bitmap in array vtables when this solution is implemented: as each
new thunk/bitmap/vtable is created we'll use more memory as we currently don't
have code to free them
until appdomain unload. We can't use the hazard pointers stuff here because
they would make the casts too slow, so we need some other way to handle this,
maybe with some hook inside the GC that would enable us to free the data at GC
(since the GC can inspect the threads state when they are stopped and determine
if they are using the vtables, the thunks or the bitmaps). The need to be able
to free the IMT thunks is shared with the implementation idea about the fast
invoke for virtual generic methods, see the relevant bug for the idea
description. There are ways to minimize the memory usage, like doubling the
sizes on overflow, that can be used until the freeing is actually implemented.
We need to remember that this excessive memory usage will be limited to arrays
and only if the users abuses them someway (as opposed to now where we waste
much more memory beforehand).
In the non-IMT case things are more complicated, since interface methods are
called by indexing into an array by interface ID and that array is part of the
MonoVTable memory block. An helper method would likely be needed for the
implementation and the invocation would be necessarily slow. I think at this
time it would be much better to port the missing architectures to use IMT
So overall this solution adds a small overhead for the casts and a small memory
issue (but always user-limited in practice) vs the huge perf and memory usage
of the current code which doesn't even allow some trivial programs to compile
and/or execute. Comments welcome before we go ahead and implement all the
needed support for this.
Before I forget: the array interfaces should be enabled only for vectors, not
for all the arrays, so this will save some pain as well.
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